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Terminology ENTermín, pojem CZDefinition or explanationOther information
Addressability Adresovatelnost Ability or property of the tag to write data to different memory addresses on the chip controller Addressability is the general ability of digital devices to individually respond to messages sent to many similar devices. Examples include pagers, mobile phones and set-top boxes for pay television. Computer networks are also addressable, such as by MAC addresses to an internet network card, and similar network protocols such as Bluetooth.
Agile reader Agilní čtečka Multi-protocol and multi-RFID reader RFID reader that can read tags operating at different frequencies or using different methods of communication between the tag and the reader.
Active tag Aktivní tag RFID tag using proactive broadcasting, not relying solely on the so-called Backscatter. More expensive, contains a battery, sometimes an accumulator, or a source of harvesting energy, so-called harvesting tag. Harvesting tag has a limited life and works at lower transmission power of the reader.
Amplitude Amplituda The absolute value of maximum deviation of periodic phenomenon, measured on the vertical axis. In other words, "the height of the wave." The amplitude is one of the fundamental parameters of periodic oscillations. More on:
Amplitude modulation Amplitudová modulace Amplitude modulation belongs to a single continuous modulation. Depending on the change of the modulation signal, the amplitude of the carrier signal is affected. There are various subtypes of the amplitude modulation such as AM DSB (Dual Side Band) includes a carrier wave and the two sidebands. Another subtype of the DSB AM SC (Suppressed Carrier), the same as AM DSB, but the carrier is suppressed. Another example may be AM SSB (Single Side Band) contains only one sideband and the carrier wave.
Analog signal Analogový signál The signal, which transmits a continuous data stream. From the discrete digital signal is differentiated just by the continuity. The term analog signal typically refers to electrical signals; However, mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and other systems may also convey analog signals.
Antenna Anténa Telecommunication non-conductive element, which enables e.g. tag bidirectional communication with the reader. It is used for transmission and receiving signal. Radiofrequency energy obtained from an antenna is used to power the chip in the tag. As the reference antenna is usually used ideal half-dipole or ideal omnidirectional so-called isotropic antenna.
Antenna gain Anténní zisk Gain combines expressing directivity and the conversion efficiency of the antenna relative to an appropriate reference antenna. This is a relative logarithmic rate, expressed in decibels.
Anti-collision Anti-kolize General term for methods to prevent interference of radio communication or more wireless devices or objects. Possible advantages of anti-collision algorithms is the ability to read multiple tags occurring within range of a RFID reader.
Asynchronous communication Asynchronní provoz Data flow through communication channel or medium at different time intervals. (bi-directional communication is not concurrently) Source (transmitter) and the destination (receiver) don't share the same clock time (clock).
Automated identification Automatická identifikace An umbrella term for technologies such as RFID, barcodes, biometrics used to unique identification. Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) refers to a method of automatically identifying objects, collecting data about them, and to access data directly into computer systems without human intervention.
Chipless RFID tag Bezčipový RFID tag A special type of RFID tag that is not built on silicon-based microchip but on conductive polymers or other special materials. The existence of an RFID tag that does not require the functionality of the integrated circuit, significantly reducing costs.
Sensitivity Citlivost Sensitivity is an important descriptive parameter for a reader and a tag. Higher sensitivity has a direct positive impact on reading distance, speed and efficiency of reading. The unit of sensitivity is dBm. The sensitivity of the reader is normally higher compared to the tag. It is the maximum distance at which the reader is able to read the tag. It is given by the power threshold required for proper operation of the chip on the tag.
Read range Čtecí rozsah/dosah Effective distance for which the reader is able to communicate with a remote tag. By using an active tag the reading distance is typically multiply higher. The reading distance is influenced by the chosen carrier and modulation frequency, power output of the reader, antennas gain and methods chosen for supply and operation of the chip and the entire tag.
Decibel Decibel (dB) The logarithmic measure or unit used eg. for expressing antenna gain. Due to the logarithmic decibel scale the math is simplified only to addition and subtraction operations. As we know, for example from the energy balance Friis equation of the wireless link.
Die Dielektrikum It is a non-conducting substance that does not prevent transmission of the electromagnetic field.  
European Article Number EAN European barcode labeling. Standards for barcodes for Europe, Asia and South America. International trade item number is a unified international number identification especially of consumer products, and other negotiable items that are often printed as a bar code on the products. Thanks to this, for example, a cashier at the store scanning the bar code connects to the database and take a price and product description that the automatic cash register prints to the customer on the bill or receipt.
Electronic Product Code (EPC) Elektronický produktový kód (EPC) EPC can be considered as a standardized serial number created by the association Auto-ID center in addition to barcodes, which is designed for RFID tags. EPC contains the numbers assigned to identify the manufacturer, product category and the unique identification of the product. It is the numbering scheme and communication protocol.
EPCglobal EPCglobal Behind this acronym stands for a global non-profit umbrella organization for standards and best practices in the field of barcode and RFID labeling. It includes a set of technologies that based on global standards allow for automatic identification, data collection and data sharing in the global logistics chain.

European Telecommunications Standards Institute

ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute. An independent, nonprofit organization for standardization in the telecommunications industry (equipment manufacturers and network operators) in Europe with a global reach. Among the most significant results of the ETSI belongs standardization of GSM mobile network, professional TETRA radio system and the requirements for Short Range Device including LPD433.
Phantom reading Fantomové čtení State when the tag reader reports the tag reading, which in fact not occurred, or such a tag does not even exist.  
Frequency modulation Frekvenční modulace The signal coding or technology. The principle is the dependence of the instantaneous frequency change of a carrier wave on the modulation signal amplitude change. For more, see
Frequency hopping Frequency hopping Technique increasing resistance to interference of readers by Skipping frequencies. Known by the acronym FHSS. Transmission of spread spectrum in two versions FFH fast (fast frequency hopping) and slow SFH (slow frequency hopping). See more
GTIN GTIN Global trade identification number. More on
HF HF High frequency. Frequency range from 3 MHz to 30 MHz. A typical example is a HF RFID NFC operating at a frequency of 13,56 MHz.  
Impedance Impedance It is a physical quantity expressing the apparent resistance of components and phase shift of the voltage versus current passes through harmonic alternating electric current in this component. The unit is ohm (Ω). More on
Inductive coupling Induktivní vazba It is a phenomenon when an electrical current flowing through the circuit forms a magnetic field in the surroundings depending on the waveform of the current in the circuit. This principle is used to transfer energy to a different conductor inserted into this variable magnetic field, the second conductor is then induces a corresponding electrical current. Low frequency systems operate on the principle of inductive coupling, they are slower, the working distance is less (up to about one meter) and also cheaper. It is one of the fundamental principles of the so-called. "Voltage penetration" see more. Between the source of interference and the receiver always exists inductive coupling (magnetic field). The greater the slope face of the disturbing current impulse di / dt, which causes the magnetic field, the greater the interfering signal see
Integrated circuit IC Integrovaný obvod Abbreviation IC refers to semiconductor component called integrated circuit. Usually comprises a plurality of interconnected transistors. Most RFID tags contain IC. It is part of a tag that contains the data that is transmitted. It also contains logic for decoding the signal transmitted from the reader device and encryption data recorded on the chip for the next transmission. Passive tags typically have the ability to transmit data size of 96 bits, while in active carriers of this size is limited because of the presence of other elements associated to the sRFID tag.
Interrogator Interrogator Another name for the RFID reader.  
ISM ISM Specific frequency band designated for industrial, scientific and medical applications. In the USA it regards the range from 902 to 928 MHz. In Europe, regards the scope 864-870 MHz. An important aspect is that this band is unlicensed, and there is no need to pay a fee for its use.
Onetime tag Jednorázový tag Called One programmable tag. Tag designed for one entry, then the tag is "locked", and you cannot modify the content of a memory. Multiple reading is enabled.
Nominal reading distance Jmenovitá (nominální) čtecí vzdálenost This is the distance at which it is possible to reliably communicate with the tags.  
Tag capacity Kapacita tagu The amount of information that can be entered into the appropriate memory locations tag. This number may represent only the user area, or even parity bits and service.
Capacite coupling Kapacitní vazba Capacitive coupling is caused by the existence of stray capacitance between the wires. It is mainly used for AC signals. Capacitive coupling separates the two circuits and transmits only the dynamic voltage changes. It is one of the fundamental principles of the so-called. "Voltage penetration" see more. Between the source of interference and the receiver is always a capacitive coupling (parasitic capacitance). The higher the slope face of the disturbing voltage impulse (du / dt), the stronger its interference effect.
Compression Komprese Methods to eliminate redundancy. In order to reduce e.g. dataflow or increase data throughput or predictability of the shape of data stream proves to the reversible eliminate redundancy information. Decompression can restore the original redundant data.
Concentrator Koncentrátor Type device HUB concentrates more RFID readers to collect the data and communication streams.  
Checksum Kontrolní součet Redundant code added to the data content to ensure the integrity checking of data red or written to a storage area on an RFID chip TAG  
Circulated polarized antenna Kruhově polarizovaná anténa A specific type of antenna used especially in deployments where you cannot control or predict the orientation of the tag. This antenna uses a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave. Circularly polarized antenna usually has a shorter range than the more common linearly polarized antennas. Circular polarization increases the probability of randomly oriented reading (previously unknown location and orientation) of the antenna RFID tag.
LF LF Low frequency. The frequency range from 30 kHz to 300 kHz. Low-frequency RFID typically operates in the range of 125 kHz to 134 kHz.  
Linear polarized antenna Lineárně polarizovaná anténa This is the type of antenna that concentrates the energy into a narrow beam, thus allowing signals to promote greater reading distance. To ensure reliable reading of the tag reader connected with a linearly polarized antenna, the tags must be properly oriented relative to the plane of polarization.
Carrier frequency Nosná frekvence The main transmitter frequency or RFID reader. To allow this frequency to carry a substantial amount of information it must be further modified or modulated.  
Object name services (ONS) Objektové jmenné služby (ONS) Equivalent to DNS introducing Auto-ID consortium as a tool for tracking detailed information tied to specific products. Using indicators, equivalent PTR DNS record created structure, expanding the detail of the product from third party databases.
Antenna orientation Orientace antény There are different orientations such horizontal, vertical, etc. These must be in accordance with the polarization of the antennas.  
Passive tag Pasivní tag RFID tag which passively waiting for the initiation of communication by the RFID reader. It relies mainly on reflective communication by so-called Backscatter. Primarily draws energy from the electromagnetic field. The price is lower and the service life is much longer against active tags. It is expected, however, higher performance of the reader.
Physical markup language (PML) PML Physical markup language, respectively the language for describing physical objects. PML is based on XML see It is a principle of standardized data model adaptation for describing products by the manufacturer.
Bend diameter Poloměr ohybu The maximum rate of bending for example in the coaxial antenna cable and so as to avoid adversely affecting the quality or attenuation of the signal. This parameter can also be found in optical fibers, it is a convenient quantity for which care must be taken when installing the antenna RFID systems.
Reader talks first Princip čtečka mluví první The reader communicates only with pre-selected tag. This principle is used e.g. for communication with the tag with a specific serial number or UID. There is often used a method called Passage of a binary tree, where the bidirectional communication scans the binary tree of possible serial numbers combinations, and this is verified by the tags being read.
Tag talks first Princip tag mluví první Once the tag gets into the reading distance of the field of the reader. This principle is used in cases where tags are read on moving objects that enter and exit the reader.
Tag programming Programování tagů Reversible or irreversible modification content of the tags for specific needs. There are different methods and tools for programming tags.
Protocol Protokol The set of rules that determine the behavior of the electronic communication system. One of the important RFID protocols is so- called Air-interface protocol.
Signal penetration Průnik signálu This is a capability of signal and energy of the signal to radiate throughout mediums. We expect no metal medium. Low-frequency systems have a greater capacity and rate of penetration than the high frequency systems.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) Radio frekvenční identifikace RFID Methods used to uniquely identify items and objects using technologies of radio waves. A typical method of operation is the communication with the RFID reader physically remote from the RFID tag containing a microcontroller via an electromagnetic field.
RFID tag RFID tag It is an element composed mostly of the coupling element or antenna. Furthermore, the semiconductor chip with a complex impedance. Input impedance of the chip must be in accordance with the input impedance of the connected antenna.
Read rate Rychlost čtení Very often used quantity describing the efficiency and performance of the radio part of the RFID ecosystem in terms of the number of successfully read tags per time unit. It also sometimes uses the equivalent data volume per unit time kbps of a given number of tags, for given conditions known in advance.
Scanner Skener Usually sophisticated radiofrequency device capable of monitoring radio frequency region. Combining the scanner with digital signal processor called microcontroller chip, it can be created so-called interrogatory, in other words, an RFID reader.
Antenna directivity Směrovost antény Directivity of the antenna is ability of the antenna to radiate or receive electromagnetic waves in a desired direction, this directionality are reviewed by Radiation characteristics.  
Synchronisation Synchronizace Coordination of operating time with different coexisting and communicating readers and their associated antennas.  
Noise Šum Unwanted energy signal noise from the surroundings. There are several types of noise. It may be caused by other electronic devices, robots and engines.
Read and write tag Tag pro čtení i zápis A special type of RFID tag, which is designed for multiple writing and rewriting the contents of memory cells. These types of tags are more expensive.
Time division multiplex access TDMA TDMA Method of communication conflict prevention of more resources on a shared radio medium. Time multiplex, enabling randomly assign rights to communicate on a shared radio medium.
Transponder Transponder A transponder is an electronic device that combines the transmitter, receiver and multiplexer. After receiving the signal, the transponder sends it as a response, often on a different frequency. A classic example is RFID transponder tag.
UHF UHF Ultra High Frequency. Very high frequency RFID operating range typically from 860 to 960 MHz. The frequency range of electromagnetic waves is determined from 300 MHz to 3 GHz.
Uniqued identifier UID Unique identifier. Unique number burned into the memory area during the production of the chip.
Signal penetration Útlum signálu Attenuation of the signal level from the different influences and effects such as reflections, absorption, etc. Factors causing attenuation of RF signal are another radio components and fields, water, conductive reflective surface etc.
Power level Výkonová úroveň (power level) The amount of radiated RF energy from the reader or RFID active tag. Generally, the higher the output power, the longer reading distance and usually field range. It is necessary to remind that the radiated power output is regulated and controlled by legislative mechanisms.
Write rate Rychlost zápisu Writing speed of information to the tag. Writing speed of a predetermined structure on the tag, especially for automated programming of large amounts of tags. The unit is number of written tags per time or data volume per unit of time.
eXtensive markup language XML Widely accepted open standard for sharing data blocks by Internet protocols, regardless of the application or operating system. It is a markup language developed by W3C consortium. It is used with advantage for serializing data, therefore, we can also found it in connection with the communication transmitting RFID data messages. As the standard is its ease of use in many programming languages. The advantage is the high readability of messages because it uses cascading styles. Another advantage is the ease of conversion to and from other formats.
Backscatter Zpětný odraz Method of accumulation of incoming energy from the radio environment and using this energy for modulation of the signal and compilation and replying typically to RFID tag reader. Most passive RFID tags use this basic principle to communicate with readers.
Tag activation Zprovoznění tagu A term used in the process of assigning a unique ID tag. Another activity in the activation process of the tag is an association of ID with a known object in the database.
Loss Ztráta This is a reduction of the signal strength by the external influences, such as the distance that must be traveled by the signal. Again, as with the gain it is a logarithmic measure of decibel expression unit.
User memory Uživatelská paměť Additional memory for entering other information that cannot be entered into EPC memory. In case of user memory, there is no standardized memory size. Most often this memory does not exceed 512 bits, in exceptional cases, it may be up to four kilobytes or 8 kilobytes.
Datasheet Katalogový list Documentation of the electronic part, in which we can find all the data necessary for its application. It is often created by the manufacturer, describes the technical features of the product, how it looks, works, or how it integrate into the system.
Electronic Article Surveillance EAS Technology to prevent theft from retail stores, libraries or theft equipment of the office buildings. Special tags are fixed to merchandise or books. These tags are removed or deactivated by officials when the item is paid for and properly checked out. At the exit of the store it is present detection system that emits a sound signal (or otherwise notifies the employee) when it detects the presence of not deactivated tag. Some stores have detection systems at the entrance to the bathroom, if someone tried to take unpaid goods with them to the bathroom.
Operating range (inlay) Provozní rozsah/dosah (inlay) Indicates the maximal (theoretical) distance for reading a tag, usually under ideal conditions, it depends inter alia on the operating frequency (e.g. 30 cm in the LF, HF to 1.5 m, UHF to 12m). Other factors influencing the reach of the reader are its characteristics, antenna performance, antenna type (active / passive), how and on what the tag is attached (metallic surface electromagnetic waves = significant reduction in the range).
Linear antenna směr čtení - lineární For successful loading of inlays it is important that its position was in a linear plane with respect to the reader antenna = parallel. Inlay with linear reading comprises a single dipole antenna, usually in the shape of a rectangle. In the case of nonlinear position of inlay - reading antenna is deteriorated to signal loss.
2D antenna směr čtení - 2D In this case there is a successful retrieve the inlay even if it is not the linear position guaranteed relative to the antenna - inlay is rotated in another direction (e.g. perpendicular). Inlay with 2D reading contains two or more dipole antennas, which are mutually uniformly rotated, thereby resulting assembly antennas ensures higher ability to successfully retrieve inlays, whether any rotation.
TID memory TID paměť This memory is only used to store the unique ID number of the tag, which enters the brand once the integrated circuit is created. Usually it is a memory that can no longer be changed.  
Electronic Product Code (EPC) EPC paměť This memory block stores the EPC code. It has at least 96 bits writable memory. Now that memory is what is typically used in most applications, and for cases where it is necessary only 96 bits of memory. There are tags that have the ability to allocate more bits to EPC memory from the user memory. EPC is allocated centrally to manufacturers in a single series. EPC with the length of 96-bit offers sufficient numeric space for 268 million of manufacturers who can produce up 16 millions product types (classes) and in each class is space for 68 billion of serial numbers.
Reserved memory   This memory block stores only "killing" password and the access password (each has 32 bits). "killing" password permanently deactivate a tag (rarely used), the access password is set to the state of lock / unlock for the ability to read / write tag. This memory is write-only, in case if you want to enter a password. Most users do not use this memory area until their applications do not contain sensitive data.
Overall energy balance Celková energetická bilance received power = transmitted power + gains - losses It is the sum of all gains and losses from the transmission of the reader, through the medium (air) and tag, and back to the receiving part of the reader.
Forward channel (charging tag) Dopředný kanál (Nabíjení tagu) It describes the flow of energy from the transmission part of the reader to the RF tag.  
Backward channel (Backscattering path) Zpětný kanál (Trasa zpětného rozptylu) After charging the tag it must be a sufficient amount of power backscattered from the tag to the reader in order to transfer information.  
Polarization losses Polarizační ztráty They are given by angle, which are mutually rotated between the reader antenna and the tag. It is often difficult to determine the exact angle, because the reader and tag can have an unpredictable position with respect to each other.
Free Space Losses Ztráty volným prostorem (FSL) In free-space propagation the electric field intensity decreases inversely with the distance. Received power decreases with the square of the distance.
Cable losses Ztráty kabelem This parameter contains all of the losses between the RF reader connector and antenna. These losses are signal attenuation through the cable and any losses in the connectors on the path.
Antenna gain Zisk Antény čtečky Gain of the antenna is given by the transformation of the energy radiated in space. Antenna gain is a logarithmic expression of directivity factor D.
Transmitting power of reader Vysílací výkon čtečky (readeru) Specifies the maximum broadcasting power. The amount of energy radiated by the transmitting antenna is limited by three constraints: cost, power consumption, government regulations.
Near Field Communication NFC Modular technology of the radio wireless communication between electronic devices over short distances (up to 4 cm) from each other. It is described by standards, which include several communication protocols and formats, describing the data transmitted. It is based on RFID standards including ISO / IEC 14443aFeliCa ...
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory EEPROM It is an electrically-erasable semipermanent (non-volatile) memory ROM-RAM. The memory has a limited number of entries less the flash memory, and before the new programming it must be first erased entirely. Utilization of this type of memory is for data storage (e.g. firmware) in the devices where the rewriting of the memory is not frequent. At present (2011) it is dispensed from the use of this memory and it is used the flash memory.
DUPLIKAT Tag Talks First TTF RFID tag tells its presence to the reader as soon as it appears in his field of vision. In case of the passive tag, the communication will be performed as soon as it receives power from the signal of the reader. Active tag shares his presence as long as it is powered by the signal.
Last Significant Bit (LSB) LSB The least significant bit - marking for the bit, which is rightmost in the writing of binary numbers. The bit, which indicates the position of the binary number value that determines odd or even numbers.
Most significant Bit (MSB) MSB The most important bit - used for the highest value bit of the binary representation of the number in binary notation usual respects to bit to the left. The most significant bit has often particular importance, for example in the representation of numbers using two's complement it is a sign bit which indicates whether the number is positive or negative.
Radio-Frequency IDentification Radio-frekvenční identifikace RFID - one of the automatic identification technology designed (not only) to identify the goods, which is builds on the bar code system. As well as barcodes is used for contactless communication at short distances. It uses mainly the carrier frequency of 125 kHz, 134 kHz and 13.56 MHz for the communication. In some states you can use other frequencies like 868 MHz (Europe) and 915 MHz (America). RFID technology is used and improved in a newer NFC system, expanding their options.
RFID Inlay RFID Inlay An electronic component which is formed by a mechanical connection of the integrated circuit and antenna. The integrated circuit is a chip, the antenna is made of aluminum, copper or silver. The resulting connection is applied to the silicon layer. Inlay is then either adhesive (wet - sensitive adhesive layer) or inserting (dry - without glue).
SmartLabel SmartLabel "Smart labels", joining the tag and barcode. The principal advantage of the smart labels is that the information can be stored in the tag memory and also printed as a bar code. It consists generally from 5 layers (thermal transfer printing, coating material, the RFID inlay, glue, silicone base).
Near Field Communication NFC Modular technology of radio wireless communication between electronic devices over short distances (up to 4 cm) from each other. This architecture is defined by a set of ISO standards. Current and projected use of this technology is primarily focused on the exchange of key data in the contactless financial transactions and simplified connection configuration of radio equipment, e.g. Wi-Fi. Using this technology allows mutual communication of two active devices (e.g. appropriately equipped mobile phones) and active devices with passive devices (so-called Tag, a passive non-powered NFC device) as a reader with a contactless payment card.
Frequency characteristics Frekvenční charakteristiky They are predetermined by the shape and size of the antenna. The antenna can be circular, square or rectangular, which affects the way of reading the tag. The size of the antenna has an effect on the reading range of the tag. There are two ways of reading - linear and 2D. Detailed description can be found here in the dictionary.
Data properties Datové vlastnosti They are predetermined by a given chip (integrated circuit) of a given tag that includes a memory for storing relevant data describing the product on which the tag is attached. The memory of the integrated circuit consists of four sub-parts in the case of the UHF tag - reserved memory, TID memory, EPC memory and the user memory. Detailed description of the individual memories can be found in here the dictionary.
RFID Chip RFID Čip It is a common synonym for the integrated circuit, which together with the RFID antenna is the base element in most cases of the RFID inlays. Further information can be found above under the term IC (Integrated Circuit - ICs).